Medicine

Medicine is the mixture of compounds that serves the purpose of curing an illness
Chemistry is important in medicine because it allows researchers to create new drugs that can help the human body fight against illnesses. When a promising molecule is identified, chemistry is required to make sure that the correct version of the molecule is used. Molecules have a “right” and “left” version, which are produced from chemical reactions. They are known as enantiomers. Specific enantiomers are required to fit in different parts of the human body. An example would be that some bodily proteins only fit left enantiomers. Some enantiomers are dangerous, while others cannot be used because they do not fit correctly.

Bee venom

When the bee stings, the venom is blended with water, so the actual arrangement of the substance it infuses into you is around 88% water and 12% venom. The fundamental toxic component of bee venom, also known as apitoxin, is melittin. Melittin is a peptide that comprises around 50-55% of dry venom, and is a compound that can break up cell membranes, resulting in the destruction of cells. In any case, it’s not viewed as the most harmful component of bee venom; that prize goes to an enzyme that makes up around 10-12% of the venom, phospholipase A. This enzyme destroys phospholipids, and separates the membranes of blood cells, bringing about cell destruction; also, unlike the majority of larger molecules in the venom, it causes the release of pain-inducing agents. However another enzyme, hyaluronidase, helps the activity of the venom by catalyzing the breakdown of protein-polysaccharide complexes in tissue, thus allowing the venom to penetrate further into the flesh.

Other, smaller particles can also contribute towards painful effects. A small amount of histamine is found in bee venom; histamine is one of the compounds discharged by the body amid the allergic response, and can cause irritation and inflammation. The proteins in the sting can cause an allergic reaction, prompting the release of even more histamine, and possible anaphylaxis. MCD peptide, another minor component of the venom, can also cause cells in the body to release more histamine, worsening inflammation.

Toothache

Acid is a highly corrosive substance that is in all batteries, many chemicals, and industrial wastes. Shockingly, it is also on many individuals’ teeth! According to the Mereck Manual of Medical Information, carbohydrates and sugars are the greatest culprits of tooth decay. It states that “all simple sugars including table sugar (sucrose) and sugars in honey (levulose and dextrose), organic products (fructose), and milk (lactose) have the same effect on the teeth. Whenever sugar comes in contact with plaque, streptococcus mutans bacteria in the plaque produce acid.” Surprisingly, the microbes and the sugar don’t specifically bring about the tooth decay. It is really the acid, the byproduct resulting from the bacteria consuming the sugars that causes tooth decay. Acid breaks down teeth and causes tooth to rot. This is why a decayed tooth weighs less than a healthy tooth.

Gastric pains

Antacids are used to relieve gastric pain. Antacids, an alkali, neutralizes the gastric acids present in the stomach and raises the gastric pH. They contain aluminum hydroxide, magnesium carbonate and magnesium trisilicate. Antacids can also be used to reduce the symptoms of acid reflux which may cause heartburn or inflammation of the oesophagus. They can also relieve some of the symptoms caused by ulcers in the duodenum.

Soap

Soap is an anionic surfactant. Surfactants, also known as surface active agents, decreases the surface tension of water, allowing it to spread and wet surfaces.

They are water-soluble sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids. Soaps are made from fats and oils, or their fatty acids, by treating them chemically with a strong alkali.

Fatty acids are the components of fats and oils that are used in making soap. They are weak acids composed of two parts: a carboxylic acid group consisting of one hydrogen (H) atom, two oxygen (O) atoms, and one carbon (C) atom, plus a hydrocarbon chain attached to the carboxylic acid group. In most cases, it is made up of a long straight chain of carbon (C) atoms each carrying two hydrogen (H) atoms.

The term alkali describes a substance that chemically is a base (the opposite of an acid) and that reacts with and neutralizes an acid. The common alkalis used in soap-making are sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also called caustic soda; and potassium hydroxide (KOH)

Sources

National Institute of General Medical Sciences
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