When the bee stings, the venom is blended with water, so the actual arrangement of the substance it infuses into you is around 88% water and 12% venom. The fundamental toxic component of bee venom, also known as apitoxin, is melittin. Melittin is a peptide that comprises around 50-55% of dry venom, and is a compound that can break up cell membranes, resulting in the destruction of cells. In any case, it’s not viewed as the most harmful component of bee venom; that prize goes to an enzyme that makes up around 10-12% of the venom, phospholipase A. This enzyme destroys phospholipids, and separates the membranes of blood cells, bringing about cell destruction; also, unlike the majority of larger molecules in the venom, it causes the release of pain-inducing agents. However another enzyme, hyaluronidase, helps the activity of the venom by catalyzing the breakdown of protein-polysaccharide complexes in tissue, thus allowing the venom to penetrate further into the flesh.
Other, smaller particles can also contribute towards painful effects. A small amount of histamine is found in bee venom; histamine is one of the compounds discharged by the body amid the allergic response, and can cause irritation and inflammation. The proteins in the sting can cause an allergic reaction, prompting the release of even more histamine, and possible anaphylaxis. MCD peptide, another minor component of the venom, can also cause cells in the body to release more histamine, worsening inflammation.